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Arte y CulturaLiteratura

5 escritoras que fueron censuradas

Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz

A lo largo de la historia de la literatura existieron políticas, según la época, que dictaminaban si una obra se publicaba o no. Conforme ha pasado el tiempo, la prohibición es cada vez menos. Sin embargo, el sector femenino siempre fue afectado con mayor rigor a la hora de publicar por el simple hecho de ser mujeres.

Algunas de ellas incluso cambiaron su nombre. Te invitamos a conocer cinco de estas escritoras censuradas y sus trabajos; obras que repercutieron en la literatura y en el pensamiento feminista.

1. Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz

La escritora mexicana es sin duda un ejemplo de censura. Con la firme convicción de aprender y poner la imagen de la mujer por encima de las creencias conservadoras y sexistas de su época, que la sometía como inferior al hombre, la decima musa propuso con su poesía, enardecida y atrevida, ver a la mujer como un ser fuerte, independiente y capaz de construir su propio destino.

Entre sus obras destacan propuestas teatrales como La segunda Celestina y Amor es más laberinto, y en su poesía Poesía amorosa y Primero sueño.

2. Amantine Dupin

Fue una escritora francesa que usaba el seudónimo de George Sand. Una mujer subversiva y atrevida que fumaba en público, vestía pantalones y tenía amoríos con hombres del gremio literario o musical. Una de las escritoras censuradas más controvertidas de su tiempo, ya que por su actitud rebelde causaba tanto admiración como repudio.

Esta vida abierta y contestataria le sirvió para poder escribir muchos libros, entre los que sobresalen están Indiana (1832) y Valentina (1831). Escritores como Gustave Flaubert o Alejandro Dumas alagaron y reconocieron su obra, incluso el mismo autor ruso Fiódor Dostoiévski la valoró como el “primer lugar en las filas de los escritores nuevos”.

3. Mary Ann Evans

Mejor conocida como George Eliot, seudónimo masculino que utilizó para poder publicar su trabajo, Mary Ann es considerada una de las grandes escritoras del siglo XIX. Middlemarch, publicado en 1874, es una de las mejores narraciones de la literatura inglesa, por lo que la misma autora Virginia Woolf lo describía como “uno de los pocos libros ingleses escritos por adultos”.

Otra obra sobresaliente es El Molino del Floss, con un trasfondo crítico feminista al apuntalar a la mujer como un ser aplastado por la cotidianidad y una sociedad industrial.

4. Simone de Beauvoir

Sometida por una sociedad machista, donde incluso su propio padre le reprochaba que no fuera varón, decide adquirir valor y tencesidad para lograr sus objetivos. Buscó expresar las injusticias y la desigualdad en la que ella, y el resto de las mujeres vivían, por lo que, incluso, durante el franquismo, parte de su obra fue censurada sin posibilidad de ser traducidas.

Hoy por hoy, Beauvoir es una autora reconocida por sus obras feministas que han consolidado un pensamiento libre y crítico. Títulos como El segundo sexo (1949), La invitada (1943), La sangre de los otros (1944) y Los mandarines (1954) son algunos de los más importantes.

5. Joane Rowling

Un caso reciente es de la escritora británica creadora de Harry Potter. Sí, hablo de J.K. Rowling. La autora tuvo que esconder su verdadero nombre para que sus libros pudieran ser vendidos al público infantil masculino. De igual manera, para vender su novela policiaca ocupo el nombre de Robert Galbraith.

Si bien, Rowling no es considerada una feminista, el hecho de anteponer su nombre como una de las escritoras más leídas de nuestro tiempo, sí la convierte en una reivindicadora de la posición femenina en el campo literario, y nos da a entender del dominio machista que aún subsiste en el circulo comercial y cultural del mundo moderno.

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